Indians who had lived and worshiped independently for centuries were forced to abandon their religions, adopt Christianity, and pay tribute to Spanish rulers.
Many have been abandoned and neglected, falling into disrepair or in ruins. However, many have been rebuilt or restored, with a veritable feast of Spanish Colonial architecture in close proximity to both Albuquerque and Santa Fe. Some sites are free, a few have limited access involving calling ahead to request an appointment, and a couple are part of state or national monuments with varying fees.
The downloadable guide provides information and hyperlinks to resources. If there is a mission missing, please let me know name, location, year constructed and whether there is public access.
Spirituality is intrinsic to the culture in New Mexico, but it is expressed in an extraordinary number of ways, from Christianity to those following the path and traditions of their ancestors and everything in between and beyond those two references. This is merely the beginning. Additional material is in development related to historical churches, Penitente Moradas and other spiritually significant sites and traditions.
History Though the Spanish built missions throughout the southwest, the oldest ones are in New Mexico. Behind the professed allegiance to God, and higher calling, was the financial motivation of The pueblo revolt of 1680 crown.
They needed the local labor pool to exploit the resources of the region. The oldest of the Spanish missions in California was established in what is now San Diego by Father Juniper Serra in ; however, the Spanish arrived in New Mexico two centuries earlier, with Coronado paving the way in for the conquistadors that would follow.
You shall bend all your energies to this object, without any other human interest interfering with this aim. The goal was to find wealthy communities to conquer, with resources to pillage. According to Spanish records, his expedition included about men, of whom were accompanied by their families, at least 8 Franciscan priests, 83 wagons and 7, head of cattle.
When they arrived at San Juan Pueblo on July 9,they were greeted with kindness and generous hospitality. The Spanish decided that the beauty and broad expanse of the valley across the river from San Juan would be the most favorable spot for their capital. The residents of San Juan allowed them to occupy the houses in the pueblo of Yunque until they could construct their own dwellings.
The newly claimed territory, encompassing most of New Mexico, was divided into 7 districts, with a Franciscan priest assigned to each district. The missions were constructed based on available materials, ranging from the massive, magnificent adobe edifices at Pecos and Acoma to the equally impressive stone construction seen in Jemez, Quarai, Abo and Gran Quivira.
The typical mission church included an artio, a walled yard in front of the church that often served as a cemetery. The front walls of the missions were often flanked by one or two corner towers. These towers were usually topped by a wooden cross and a bell. The bells were used to call the faithful to worship.
A large wooden door at the center of the front wall led large, windowless interior spaces, usually devoid of benches or seats. The faithful would stand or kneel on the earthen floor.
The interior walls were adorned with colorful murals and carved santos, bultos, or painted buffalo hides. Some churches acquired ornate altars and beautiful statuary from Mexico.
Francisco de San Miguel was assigned the Province of the Pecos, with seven pueblos on the east, and also the pueblos of the Salinas country extending to the great plain. Francisco de Zamora was assigned the Province of Picuris and Taos and the surrounding country.
Alonza de Lugo was given the Province of Jemez, including Cia, and many pueblos whose names have been lost over the centuries. In a report by Father Benavidas to the King of Spain inthe priest referenced fifty friars in New Mexico, serving over 60, natives who had accepted Christianity.
He reported that the natives lived in 90 pueblos, grouped into about 25 Missions with churches and conventos, and that each pueblo had its own church. When you consider that the Franciscan monks were dispatched to communities alone, with no knowledge of language, culture or traditions and no monetary or material incentives to offer, and little in the way of military support, it is extraordinary that more of them weren't killed.
However, the establishment of intolerant theocracies and excessive demands for tribute had disastrous results. These accusations would become a theme for the Spanish administrations that followed. Despite the ongoing disagreements between church and state in terms approach and interaction with the local communities, more priests were dispatched from Mexico City and the official Spanish policies and protocols remained unchanged, leading to mounting frustration and anger among the occupied communities.
Priests destroyed sacred artifacts and banned traditional religious practices. The tributes demanded were exorbitant.In , the Pueblo Indians of northern New Mexico rose up in massive revolt against their Spanish overlords and managed for a short time, to regained their independence from colonial rule.
This revolt came after nearly four generations of colonial rule where continued Spanish misrule generated this revolt/5(9). Pueblo Revolt – Rising Up Against the Spaniards Spanish Conquistadors From the time the first Spanish colony, San Juan de los Caballeros, was established at the San Juan Pueblo (now called Ohkay Owingeh) in , New Mexico became a Franciscan enclave dedicated to converting the region’s Native Americans to Christianity.
Pecos Pueblo, 50 miles east of the Rio Grande, pledged its participation in the revolt, as did the Zuni and Hopi, and miles west of the Rio Grande respectively. The Pueblos not joining the revolt were the four southern Tiwa (Tiguex) towns near Santa Fe and the Piro Pueblos near present day Socorro.
But was not the first time New Mexico's Pueblos had attempted to rebel against the Spanish government. Beginning with the Acoma Revolt of , Spanish intolerance of Pueblo religious practices and a persistent abuse of Pueblo labor had prompted several revolts against the Spanish in the seventeenth century.
The Town of Taos was incorporated as a general law municipality on May 7, It has a Mayor/Council form of government, along with an appointed Town Manager to manage the affairs of the Town.
The Pueblo Revolt of occurred in the Pueblo Region, which is present day New Mexico. The spanish came in and tried to force the people to convert to christianity. They arrest the pueblo holy men and some of them are put to death.