Mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen?
Conclusion There are perhaps few decisions made on behalf of students with visual impairments that are more crucial, yet subject to more confusion and controversy, than the decision regarding an appropriate reading medium.
Making an initial determination of the appropriate reading medium is not a concern for those who have no visual impairment i. Difficulties may arise, however, in making decisions for those students who are visually impaired but not totally blind.
The purpose of this Reading as a psychosocial process is to address these difficulties and propose guidelines for appropriate decision making. Few published procedures have been available to teachers and parents for assistance in making decisions concerning selection of a reading medium for students with visual Reading as a psychosocial process.
Perhaps the lack of attention in the literature addressing this difficult problem has led to a sense of confusion that has fueled the controversy between teaching print reading or teaching braille reading.
While common guidelines for such decisions may be used by professionals throughout the country, these have not been thoroughly documented. In the past, professionals believed that use of vision could impair sight even further Irwin, It was common practice to blindfold, and teach braille reading to all students who were visually impaired and, therefore, "save their sight" for other tasks.
The decision to teach braille reading was made without consideration of visual functioning. Today, best professional practice and federal legislation specify that educational decisions must be made by a multidisciplinary team according to the individual needs and abilities of each student.
These decisions must be based on information obtained from systematic procedures. Such procedures must be used to determine the most appropriate reading medium for each child. This article will focus on students who are entering a developmental reading program, i.
Students with adventitious visual impairments present separate concerns that, while important, will not be considered within the scope of this paper. An essential part of this critical period is the role that professionals and parents have in assuring that a solid foundation is provided for each student.
No one can predict the future with absolute certainty. However, professionals and parents are called upon to make informed decisions as a team in order to assure an appropriate education for each student with a visual impairment; one essential team decision will involve the primary reading medium.
Diagnostic teaching in the decision-making process Decisions on the appropriate reading medium cannot be made on the basis of arbitrary information, such as the legal definition of blindness, since students with visual impairments use their vision with differing degrees of efficiency.
The period of reading readiness presents an ideal time for implementation of a diagnostic teaching approach, since readiness activities seek to stimulate all the senses in preparation for formal reading.
Support for the need for one reading medium or another can be derived from these data. The key element is collecting information that will provide a basis for informed decision making, a process that is undeniably superior to decisions based on arbitrary or superficial information.
Characteristics of diagnostic teaching Diagnostic teaching combines the two essential educational practices of instruction and assessment and may be characterized by the following principles: The use of diagnostic teaching practices is by no means new.
Although such an approach is typically associated with the diagnosis and remediation of learning problems, the case can be made that it has value for other applications in which a problem-solving approach is needed. The diagnostic teaching approach provides an excellent means of putting together pieces of a puzzle when one piece is missing or unknown.
The determination of the appropriate reading medium for young children with visual impairments who are beginning to read can be achieved through the use of these strategies. The process of collecting information The process of diagnostic teaching uses incidental and structured observations, indirect and direct teaching, and ongoing assessment as a basis for guiding subsequent instruction.
At this point, educators should have acquired some preliminary indication of whether a student is primarily a visual learner or primarily a tactual learner, as well as information on the rate of learning with the preferred sensory modality.
For some students, a decision on the appropriate reading medium may be made relatively early in the readiness phase, but additional information may be needed for others.
As these skills are being established, a wealth of information can be collected to support the decision for a specific reading medium. For students whose primary reading medium was not established earlier, scrutiny of the more "formal" readiness skills will be necessary.
As students enter the stage in which they are learning prerequisite skills for reading, the educator should provide exposure to printed materials and braille materials, either concurrently or sequentially, in order to determine the level of sustained interest and the rate of learning of specific skills in each medium.
For a student who has not demonstrated a consistent pattern of visual or tactual learning, the data collected during this period of time will be most crucial for consideration by the multidisciplinary team in determining the reading medium.
It is possible for a student with a visual impairment at this stage in reading development to show nearly equal preference for visual and tactual information, and additional consideration will need to be made by the team, such as prognosis of the visual impairment and future applicability of each medium.
It is important to allow sufficient time to collect information to support the crucial decision on the reading medium. Team members should not feel compelled to follow the common practice that a child should begin to read at a certain age, but should wait until readiness skills are established; students with visual impairments may require an extended readiness period prior to formal reading instruction.
If parents or other team members are reluctant to extend the readiness period, the teacher of the visually impaired must be prepared to discuss the negative consequences of moving a child into formal reading instruction before adequate readiness is established.
This section will discuss the areas to consider in collecting pertinent information through diagnostic teaching and the process of synthesizing these data in a manner that will lead to an informed team decision.
Four areas are important to consider during the diagnostic teaching phase in early reading development: Visual efficiency A period of diagnostic teaching is ideal and essential for accurately assessing the degree of efficiency with which a student uses vision to gather information about the environment.5.
Quality Measurement. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has set the stage for transformation of the health care system.
This transformation includes change in what the nation wants from health care as well as in how care is paid for. Teaching Reading: Elementary Education cognitive, and psychological bases of the reading process 3. Is familiar with how the linguistic, sociological, cultural, cognitive, and psychological bases of the reading process influence students’ reading comprehension 4.
Understands literal, inferential, and . The natural process of reading is brain eye and text any other activety which disturbe this chain effect reading.
Some people move their head some move finger which is a bad habit and reducess the. major field test in psychology SAMPLE QUESTIONS The following questions illustrate the range of the test in terms of the abilities measured, the disciplines covered, and the.
In addition to a thorough examination of exclusionary factors and measures of achievement, this approach measures psychological processes in order to establish logical and empirical links between the psychological process and academic area of concern .
Early childhood development is the key to a full and productive life for a child and to the progress of a nation. Early childhood is a critical stage of development.