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Before the majority of Irish immigrants to North America were Protestant. Bythey accounted for a little more than 10 percent. The s and s were the age of mass emigration of Catholics from Ireland to America.
Leaving behind a desolate and famine-ravaged country, Irish Catholics arrived in staggering numbers.
Just under four million Irish people immigrated to the United States between andand more than 1. In each decade between andthe Irish accounted for over 35 percent of all immigrants to America.
From tothe figure was 46 percent! Afterthe figure gradually dropped until it was a little more than 2. Catholic immigrants overwhelmingly settled in urban areas; by90 percent of Irish immigrants to the United States lived in cities and towns.
Three quarters of the Irish immigrants in America lived in seven industrialized urban zones: The vast majority of these immigrants ended up in low-paid, low-skilled jobs, but for some, saloon-keeping was viewed as a road to financial success. The image of a saloon in Ireland and England is generally that of a high Victorian-style establishment with ornate decoration and expensive furnishings, typically located in an urban environment.
The Crown Liquor Saloon in Belfast is perhaps the most famous and elaborate example. In America, the term was used to describe a wider range of establishments. The Irish, like other ethnic groups, sought to recreate their social environment in a new context.
The Italians brought their restaurants; the Irish brought their pubs. Some countries brought a cuisine; the Irish brought their alcohol.
Emigration is recognized as a stressful process, and psychologists have long noted the propensity of stressed emigrants to revert to native comfort foods. In America at that time most business areas were dominated by Protestants.
Owning a saloon was a way for an Irish Catholic to gain a foothold in commercial life. The costs of entry were low, and many fine establishments evolved from humble saloons. However, the Irish did not have the pub trade all to themselves.
German pubs with beer gardens and elaborate dance floors were popular with the social elites. Bythe Southwark part of the city was heavily populated by Irish immigrants, and of the eighty-three liquor licenses in the municipal area, thirty-one of them were held by recognizably Irish names.
The situation in nearby Worcester was even more pronounced.
Bytwo thirds of the applicants for licenses were Irish, even though they accounted for less than a third of the population. While the German beer gardens tended to the prosperous, the quality of Irish saloons was varied.
Charest studied saloon proprietorship in Virginia City, NV in She found the Irish were the largest group of ethnic saloon keepers, followed by the Germans.
Irishmen controlled eighteen saloons — 26 percent of the drinking establishments in the city — while Germans owned fourteen, or 19 percent of the total. However, it was the Germans who were the best represented when total population was taken into account.
InJohn Koren studied crime figures in an attempt to see if the widespread vilification of the Irish in America as drunken criminals was statistically valid.
The Irish ranked third, behind the Scottish and Canadian ethnic groups, and were on a par with the Polish, English and Americans. Koren was an avowed teetotaler, but did not envisage damnation for the drinkers.
Inrenowned frontiersman Davy Crockett visited the area. He compared the Irish of his acquaintance in the western states to the Five Pointers: Jocelyn Green described the area in her novel "Yankee in Atlanta": Groggeries, brothels and dance halls put private sin on public display.
Although the neighborhood seems fairly self-contained, more fortunate New Yorkers were terrified of Five Points erupting, spreading its contagion to the rest of them. However, the builders did not take account of the softness of the ground, and the condition of the tenements deteriorated quickly.
The Irish population in New York City rose fromin to 1, byand the vast majority of these newly arrived citizens were housed in these abysmal tenements.
The buildings were often little more than outhouses.From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne's Irish Tenants Encounter North America's Most Notorious Slum. TYLER ANBINDER. As NEW YORKER ELLEN HOLLAND looked back over her first forty-seven years of life in , she must have wondered whether she was blessed or cursed.
Five Points (or The Five Points) was a 19th-century neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
The neighborhood was generally defined as being bound by Centre Street to the west, the Bowery to the east, Canal Street to the north, and Park Row to the south. Examines the Irish famine that began in and the emigration that it precipitated. Analysis of the circumstances and fate of the poor tenants of Lord Lansdowne's County Kerry state; Description of living conditions before and after the famine; Emigration of the tenants to the Five Points neighborhood in .
Page 3 of From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne's Irish Tenants Encounter North America's Most Notorious Slum TYLER ANBINDER As NEW YORKER ELLEN HOLLAND looked back over her first forty-seven years of life.
Five Points (or The Five Points) was a 19th-century neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York vetconnexx.com neighborhood was generally defined as being bound by Centre Street to the west, the Bowery to the east, Canal Street to the north, and Park Row to the south.
Through the twentieth century, the former Five Points area was gradually redeveloped, with streets changed or closed. From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne's Irish Tenants Encounter North America's Most Notorious Slum.