Donation behavior

The majority of blood donors indicated that they had decided to donate BD: Discussion Most of the blood donors are heavier in weight

Donation behavior

Received Feb 15; Accepted Apr The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided Donation behavior original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This study investigated the role of moral reasoning and moral emotions i.

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Participants also provided justifications for their anticipated emotions, which were coded as representing moral or non-moral reasoning processes. In addition, results demonstrated significant developmental and gender effects, with 8-year-olds donating significantly more than 4-year-olds and 4-year-old girls making higher value donations than boys of the same age.

We discuss donation behaviors within the broader context of giving and highlight the moral developmental antecedents of giving behaviors in childhood. Because of its roots in early childhood and its importance to large-scale fairness and care Malti et al.

It is often the case, however, that little distinction is drawn between different subtypes of giving. As a result, a lack of conceptual clarity surrounding subtypes of giving behavior exists and many questions remain regarding their potentially distinct affective and cognitive moral antecedents.

Sharing, as one type of giving, for example, is often examined in research using the dictator game Kahneman et al. Sharing is completed privately and there is no opportunity for the recipient to respond, retaliate, or form an evaluation of the non sharer Gummerum et al.

In this way, sharing in the dictator game is anonymous, unreciprocated, and costly the shared items are typically selected so that they are valuable to the giver and there is no opportunity for the allocated items to be returned. Researchers may vary the contextual features of the dictator game, but in the simplest version, there is no explicit need ascribed to the recipient.

Donating, like sharing, is also typically anonymous, costly, and unreciprocated. Unlike sharing, however, givers in donation tasks are confronted with potential recipients who exhibit clear need, often on the basis of poverty Dlugokinski and Firestone, ; Rushton and Wheelwright,injury Knight et al.

Donation behavior

Although a number of studies Eisenberg and Miller, ; Malti et al. In particular, existing developmental studies have found that the association between giving behaviors and morality differs on the basis of: In the current study, we therefore consider an important distinction between the giving behaviors of sharing and donating: We also investigate the developmental trajectory and affective-moral antecedents specific to donation behaviors of 4- and 8-year-olds.


Each of these processes has been highlighted in the existing developmental literature as playing an important role in the development of morally relevant, prosocial behavior.

Existing research also suggests that the affective experience of sympathy early in childhood may lead to a general tendency to consider the needs of others and the development of norms of fairness and care Malti et al. The experience of guilt feelings reflects the awareness that one has transgressed his or her own internalized moral rules and takes responsibility for these actions Malti and Ongley, When one anticipates that feelings of guilt will accompany potential moral rule violations, such as the failure to help or give to those in need, this anticipation of and desire to avoid future guilt encourages a commitment to live up to internalized moral standards Ferguson and Stegge, ; Hoffman, ; Carlo et al.

The use of moral reasoning to justify actions or resolve moral dilemmas, as compared to reasoning based on sanctions, hedonistic or self-serving considerations, has also been demonstrated to predict specific types of prosocial responding in children, such as sharing, helping, and cooperation Larrieu and Mussen, ; Miller et al.

Based on findings from previous studies showing that sympathy predicts donating in middle childhood Knight et al. We also expected that the anticipation of moral guilt would be positively associated with donating.

This hypothesis was drawn from related research demonstrating a positive relationship between guilt and overt prosocial behavior Malti and Krettenauer, and between guilt and other forms of giving i. Finally, we predicted that moral reasoning would also emerge as a significant predictor of donating in early childhood.

Though existing research has yielded conflicting findings as to the role of moral reasoning in various forms of giving in childhood, there is existing evidence to suggest that moral reasoning is positively associated with donating in middle childhood Knight et al.

As a proxy for socioeconomic status SESwe asked primary caregivers to report their highest level of education. The sample for the current study was ethnically diverse. Four percent of the primary caregivers chose not to report their ethnic background.

Each session lasted approximately 45 min and consisted of interview questions on moral and social development, nine variations of the dictator game, and a donation task.

All sessions were recorded on video. The testers were undergraduate psychology students who had been extensively trained in interview techniques.

As pilot testing did not indicate order effects, tasks were administered in a fixed order, with the measurement of self-reported sympathy following the measurement of guilt feelings, moral reasoning, and the dictator game though the latter is not discussed as part of the current study.

The donation task was the final task in the study. In a task conducted earlier in the experiment as part of a larger study, children participated in nine variations of the dictator game in which they received stickers from the experimenter and decided whether or not to share any number of these with a hypothetical peer.

These sharing tasks were conducted privately and with no feedback from the experimenter.Hypothesis Development4 2. 1 Personal link to the cause and intention to donate4 2. 2 Good brand personality of a non-profit organization and intention to donate4 .

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