Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.
In addition to individual differences in development, developmental psychologists generally agree that development occurs in an orderly way and in different areas simultaneously.
Those psychologists who support the continuous view of development suggest that development involves gradual and ongoing changes throughout the life span, with behaviour in the earlier stages of development providing the basis of skills and abilities required for the next stages.
Not all psychologists, however, agree that development is a continuous process. Some view development as a discontinuous process. They believe development involves distinct and separate stages with different kinds of behaviour occurring in each stage.
This suggests that the development of certain abilities in each stage, such as specific emotions or ways of thinking, have a definite starting and ending point.
However, there is no exact time at which an ability suddenly appears or disappears. Although some types of thinking, feeling or behaving may seem to appear suddenly, it is more than likely that this has been developing gradually for some time.
They also assume that the structure of the stages is not variable according to each individual, however the time of each stage may vary individually.A significant proportion of theories within this discipline focus upon development during childhood, as this is the period during an individual's lifespan when the most change occurs.
Developmental psychologists study a wide range of theoretical areas, such as biological, social, emotion, and cognitive processes. By comparing and contrasting the origins of the four main Psychological perspectives of Child Development and acknowledging their legacies to modern day practices, I intend to conclude that childhood has probably been viewed to a greater extent as a social and cultural process than it has a natural process.
Child Development Theories has different methods.
They focus on the development theory on children's stages of growth. Thus, education is viewed as a process which should occur in harmony with the child’s individual developmental pace. It is a holistic approach emphasizing all aspects of development, rather than on attaining specific.
Erik Erikson was a psychologist who did most of his work in the post-Freudian era, in the s to the s. He was a student of Freud, and was greatly influenced by the latter's theories of personality development. Summary: Carol Dweck and others have Identified two implicit theories of intelligence.
Those learners who have an "entity" theory view intelligence as being an unchangeable, fixed internal characteristic.
Those who have an "incremental" theory believe that their intelligence is malleable and can be increased through effort. Originators: Carol Dweck, based on over 30 years of research on belief. Child Development Theories has different methods.
They focus on the development theory on children's stages of growth.