Rivne Ghetto A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration campThe Holocaust was the most significant event in the modern Jewish history and one of the most costly genocides humanity has ever known.
Equipment and tactics Personal equipment Police officers, whether plain-clothed or uniformed, carry a variety of equipment with them on service calls. Police in uniform carry much more equipment than those in plain clothes, and members of special operations teams, such as SWAT and crowd-control units, carry even more, sometimes including full body armour complete with helmet, leg pads, and shield.
French National Police officer wearing a helmet and a radio. The holster was attached to a Sam Browne belt—a wide belt, usually made of leather, supported by a strap extending diagonally over the right shoulder.
The belt was ill-adapted to changes in other police equipment, however, and its use declined in the late 20th century. A clipboard with spare report forms also is standard equipment.
In addition, many police officers carry first-aid kits and other medical equipment, such as a defibrillator, in their patrol cars; they also may carry a portable breath analyzer for testing drivers who may be intoxicated.
To this basic equipment many police officers add cell phones or pagers, flashlights, binoculars, tape recorders, portable scanners, plastic gloves, and extra weapons e. The practice of bearing extra weapons, being of questionable legality, is mostly done surreptitiously, making it difficult to assess how extensive it is.
However, it has been acknowledged by most police researchers. Finally, an essential piece of equipment is the bulletproof vestwhich covers the torso of the officer and is worn either over or under the uniform shirt.
Many such vests are made with the fibre Kevlar, which is capable of stopping most handgun projectiles and many types of knives. More robust vests, made of ceramic and fibre combinations that can withstand rifle fire, are used in bomb-disposal operations.
The quantity and diversity of equipment carried by police officers naturally depend on the financial resources allocated to police forces. North American police forces are generally better equipped than police forces in most other parts of the world; indeed, their equipment levels tend to be treated as benchmarks that other forces try to meet.
Nevertheless, with the important exception of firearms, police equipment throughout the world is becoming increasingly standardized. Arrest-and-control technologies and techniques Nonlethal tactics and instruments Police officers routinely arrest suspects in the course of their duties.
Although most suspects surrender without incident, some resist being taken into custody. In most such cases, police are able to subdue the suspect by using unarmed techniques, some of which are drawn from various martial arts e. Students at the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Academy undergoing martial-arts training.
The nightstick carried by police officers was originally made of wood, but most now are made of composite materials. The straight baton was developed in the midth century.
Known as a nightstick or billy club, it ranges in length from 12 to 36 inches 30 to 90 cm. Because it is smooth and can be held from either end, it tends to inflict few cuts or lacerations; it can be used for both striking and control tactics.
Additional features of modified batons may include a built-in flashlight, an electric chargeor a syringe e.
Stun-gun technology is a good illustration of the globalization of police equipment. Most police forces that can afford nonlethal electric weaponry have invested in it—including those that resist the use of firearms.
Early aerosol sprays were used only sparingly, because they vaporized quickly and could affect officers and others in close proximity to the suspect—particularly inside a squad car. Sprays containing capsicum oleoresin see capsaicinan irritant derived from pepper plants, proved to be more effective than other aerosols, and they possessed the additional advantage of being nonvaporizing.
Devinasch For high-risk operations and crowd control, various irritating chemicals can be delivered by a handheld low-yield burst grenade, shotgun, or grenade launcher. The less-harmful PepperBall, which combines a compressed-air launcher and a projectile filled with capsicum oleoresin, was developed in the s.
Because the projectiles break upon impact, they usually do not cause permanent injury, even when fired at close range.Indigenous activist Lex Wotton, who was convicted of inciting the riots following the death of Cameron Doomadgee, launched the legal action in In the end of the 19th century a new type of antisemitism had begun to develop in Europe, the racial antisemitism.
It has started as a part of a broader racist world view and belief of superiority of the "white race" over all other "races" while the already existing prejudice was also supported by pseudo-scientific theories such as Social Darwinism.
Aug 18, · The Baltimore Police Department is found to have violated the civil rights of poor blacks. A historian explains why those findings are eerily similar to how the city treated blacks in the s. Ginette Vincendeau is a professor of film studies at King’s College London.
She has written widely on popular French cinema and is a regular contributor to Sight & Sound. She coedited the Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Jean Renoir (with Alastair Phillips, ). Background. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Ukraine endured years of corruption, mismanagement, lack of economic growth, currency devaluation, and problems in securing funding from public markets.
Successive Ukrainian governments in the s sought a closer relationship with the European Union (EU). One of the measures meant to achieve this was an association agreement with .
Jul 05, · List of riots. Save. This is a chronological list of known riots. Disambiguation. They led to unfounded fears that the riots had been a deliberate attempt by France and Spain to destabilise Britain before an i.
race riots in Singapore topic. List of riots topic.