Taylor has been referred to as the father of Scientific Management.
Among the very basic principles that guide scientists, as well as many other scholars, are those expressed as respect for the integrity of knowledge, collegiality, honesty, objectivity, and openness.
These principles are at work in the fundamental elements of the scientific method, such as formulating a hypothesis, designing an experiment to test the hypothesis, and collecting and interpreting data.
In addition, more particular principles characteristic of specific scientific disciplines influence the methods of observation; the acquisition, storage, management, and sharing of data; the communication of scientific knowledge and information; and the training of younger scientists.
The basic and particular principles that guide scientific research practices exist primarily in an unwritten code of ethics.
Although some have proposed that these principles should be written down and formalized, 2 the principles and traditions of science are, for the most part, conveyed to successive generations of scientists through example, discussion, and informal education.
As was pointed out in an early Academy report on responsible conduct of research in the Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Responsible Science, Volume I: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process.
The National Academies Press. Physicist Richard Feynman invoked the informal approach to communicating the basic principles of science in his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology Feynman, It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty—a kind of leaning over backwards.
For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid—not only what you think is right about it; other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked—to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated.
Details that could throw doubt on your interpretation must be given, if you know them. You must do the best you can—if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong—to explain it.
If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. In summary, the idea is to try to give all the information to help others to judge the value of your contribution, not just the information that leads to judgment in one particular direction or another.
Even in a revolutionary scientific field like molecular biology, students and trainees have learned the basic principles governing judgments made in such standardized procedures as cloning a new gene and determining its sequence.
In evaluating practices that guide research endeavors, it is important to consider the individual character of scientific fields. Research fields that yield highly replicable results, such as ordinary organic chemical structures, are quite different from fields such as cellular immunology, which are in a much earlier stage of development and accumulate much erroneous or uninterpretable material before the pieces fit together coherently.
When a research field is too new or too fragmented to support consensual paradigms or established methods, different scientific practices can emerge.
Page 38 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers.
Science encompasses a large body of evidence collected by repeated observations and experiments. Although its goal is to approach true explanations as closely as possible, its investigators claim no final or permanent explanatory truths.
Verifiable facts always take precedence. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.
The task of systematizing and extending the understanding of the universe is advanced by eliminating disproved ideas and by formulating new tests of others until one emerges as the most probable explanation for any given observed phenomenon. This is called the scientific method.
An idea that has not yet been sufficiently tested is called a hypothesis. Different hypotheses are sometimes advanced to explain the same factual evidence. Rigor in the testing of hypotheses is the heart of science, if no verifiable tests can be formulated, the idea is called an ad hoc hypothesis—one that is not fruitful; such hypotheses fail to stimulate research and are unlikely to advance scientific knowledge.
A fruitful hypothesis may develop into a theory after substantial observational or experimental support has accumulated. When a hypothesis has survived repeated opportunities for disproof and when competing hypotheses have been eliminated as a result of failure to produce the predicted consequences, that hypothesis may become the accepted theory explaining the original facts.
Scientific theories are also predictive. They allow us to anticipate yet unknown phenomena and thus to focus research on more narrowly defined areas. If the results of testing agree with predictions from a theory, the theory is provisionally corroborated.View Essay - The Increasing Application of Scientific Management Principles Of Work Essay from MAN at University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley.
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The Increasing Application of Scientific Management Principles Of Work Organisations To Services Is, Despite Its Limitations, Inevitable and Irreversible. The Application of Scientific Management in Today’s Organisations INTRODUCTION “The principle object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee ” (Taylor, , p.9) With those evocative words, Frederick W.
Taylor had begun his highly influential book; “The .